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Common patterns and usages are documented here.

Loading different classes based on an environment variable

from abc import ABC
from lagom import Container, dependency_definition
from lagom.environment import Env

## Assume we have a Thing with a slightly different class in dev
## or maybe just in a different deployment

class Thing(ABC):
    def run(self): ...

class ProdVersionOfThing(Thing):
    def __init__(self, config):
        self.config = config

    def run(self):
        print(f"PROD: {self.config}")

class DevVersionOfThing(Thing):
    def run(self):
        print(f"DEV THING")

## Lagom provides an env class to represent a logical
## grouping of environment variables

class ThingEnvironment(Env):
    # This maps to an environment variable THING_CONN
    thing_conn: str

## We define a dependency_definition function for
## our Thing which fetches the env from the container
## automatically loading the env variable.
## Note: if the env variable is unset an error will be raised
container = Container()

@dependency_definition(container, singleton=True)
def _thing_loader(c: Container) -> Thing:
    connection_string = c[ThingEnvironment].thing_conn
    if connection_string.startswith("dev://"):
        return DevVersionOfThing()
    return ProdVersionOfThing(connection_string)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    thing = container[Thing]

Removing a dependency on the system clock

from datetime import datetime
from typing import NewType

from lagom import Container, magic_bind_to_container

container = Container()

Now = NewType("Now", datetime)

container[Now] = lambda:

def month_as_a_string(now: Now):
    return now.strftime("%B")


# in testing:

assert month_as_a_string(datetime(2020, 5, 12)) == "May"

Integrating with OpenTelemetry

from lagom import Container, magic_bind_to_container, dependency_definition
container = Container()

# The tracer provider is a singleton because we only need one of it
@dependency_definition(container, singleton=True)
def _get_provider() -> TracerProvider:
    provider = TracerProvider()
    processor = SimpleSpanProcessor(ConsoleSpanExporter())
    return provider

# A new tracer is built each time it's needed. Later in the code
# this will be made a request level singleton so that all actions
# in one request share a tracer context
container[Tracer] = lambda c: trace.get_tracer(__name__, tracer_provider=c[TracerProvider])

# Note: This class now has no tracer global state
# we can easily do some testing around the tracing.
class SomeService:
    def __init__(self, tracer: Tracer):
        self.tracer = tracer

    def do_work(self):
        with self.tracer.start_as_current_span("Doing some work with an API"):
            return "important data"

# When binding this request handling function to the container
# we make instances of Tracer shared. This means anything that 
# asks for a tracer will get the same one. So SomeService and this
# function work on the same trace context
@magic_bind_to_container(container, shared=[Tracer])
def handle_request(request, tracer: Tracer, service: SomeService):
    with tracer.start_as_current_span("starting up"):
        service_response = service.do_work()
        print(f"ok: {service_response}")

Hiding executor details from functions

import asyncio
import concurrent
from concurrent.futures.thread import ThreadPoolExecutor
from typing import NewType

from lagom import Container, magic_bind_to_container

container = Container()

IOBoundExecutor = NewType("IOBoundExecutor", ThreadPoolExecutor)

MAX_WORKERS = 8 # Or twice CPU count or whatever
container[IOBoundExecutor] = lambda : ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=MAX_WORKERS)

# This function now doesn't need to know details of the
# system it's running on (CPU count). All it needs to know
# is if the task is IO bound or not.
async def do_some_work(io_bound_executor: IOBoundExecutor):
    with io_bound_executor as executor:
        futures = {executor.submit(process_message, n) for n in range(0, 20)}
        completed_futures = concurrent.futures.wait(futures)
    print([f.result() for f in completed_futures.done])

def process_message(number):
    # Pretend we did some io bound work
    return f"hej {number}"